Diseases & Conditions

Acanthosis Nigricans
Acquired Immuno Deficiency
Alcoholism
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ascariasis
Aspergillosis
Blastomycosis
Blepharitis
Blepharospasm
Botulism
Bronchietasis
Campylobacteriosis
Cerebral Contusion
Cerebral Palsy
Chlamydia
Cholera
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Cirrhosis
Clonorchiasis
Coccidioidmycosis
Cystitis
Dacryocystitis
Decompression Sickness
Dementia
Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Digeorge Syndrome
Dysphasia
Ehrlichioses
Encephalitis
Endocarditis
Endometriosis
Epdidymis
Epiglottitis
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Gallstones
Gastroenteritis
Gaucher's Disease
Glaucoma
Glomerulonephritis
Gonorrhea
Goodpastures Syndrome
Hemochromatosis
Hemophilia
Hepatitis
Huntington Disease
Hyperbilirubimia
Inclusion Conjunctivitis
Influenza
Insomnia
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Meningitis
Multiple Sclerosis
Narcolepsy
Orbital Cellulitis
Osteoporosis
Pertussis
Polio
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sinusitis
Strabismus
Stroke
Stye
Trichomonas
Tuberculosis
Varicella
Vascular Retinopathies
Von Willebrands Diseases

Cholera

Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by the bacerium Vibrio cholerae which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. Approximately one in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea vomiting, and leg cramps. Although only a few cases are recognized in the United States each year epidemic levels of cholera have recently been reported in parts of Central and South America. If untreated, the fatality rate in severe cases can be as high as 50 per cent due to dehydration and kidney failure. Infection without symptoms or with only mild diarrhoea, is common particularly in children. The risk of epidemics is highest when poverty war or natural disasters force people to live in crowded conditions without adequate sanitation. The great irony is that unlike many infectious diseases cholera is easily treated. Death results from severe dehydration, which can be prevented with a simple and inexpensive rehydration solution.

Cholera is a bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Although cholera is a very rare disease today, six worldwide outbreaks were documented between 1817 and 1911 that resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium is part of the flora of brackish water and estuaries it is when this water gets into the drinking supply that an outbreak can start. The major symptom of cholera is massive watery diarrhea that occurs because of a toxin secreted by the bacteria that stimulates the cells of the small intestine to secrete fluid. Europe witnessed several epidemics in the 19th century, but since then the disease is mostly seen in developing countries , due to poor water infrastructure . It causes severe diarrhoea and vomiting, and patients, particularly children and the elderly, are vulnerable to dangerous dehydration as a result. Cholera is not a difficult disease to treat and most people recover well with appropriate oral fluid replacement (hydration). However, if the disease goes untreated, it can rapidly lead to shock, as a result of fluid and electrolyte loss, and to life-threatening complications.

Causes of Cholera

The common Causes of Cholera :

  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
  • Vibrio cholerae is a comma-shaped, curved gram negative rods, which are motile
  • Raw or inadequately cooked fish and seafood taken from sewage-polluted waters
  • Vibrio cholerae produces a toxic substance called "enterotoxin" this causes cholera, a profuse watery diarrhea that can sometimes rapidly lead to dehydration and death.
  • Municipal water supplies
  • Vegetables irrigated with fresh sewage

Symptoms of Cholera

Some Symptoms of Cholera :

  • Watery diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration (loss of fluids), if not treated
  • Leg cramps
  • Loose stools
  • Nausea
  • Profuse diarrhea with abdominal cramps.
  • Dehydration can occur rapidly
  • In severe untreated cases, death may occur in a few hours
  • Mild diarrhea
  • Restlessness
  • Thirsty feeling

Treatment of Cholera

  • The bacteria can be cultured from the stool.
  • Severe cases are treated using intravenously administered fluids and antibiotics such as tetracycline or doxycycline.
  • In severe cases; an effective antibiotic treatment can reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea and the period of Vibrio excretion.
  • Tetracycline is the antibiotic usually given, but resistance to tetracycline is emerging. Tetracycline resistant strains are now treated with Cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and furazolidone. Consult your doctor for proper medication.
  • Infection of cholera can be adequately treated by administering oral rehydration salts to replace the loss of fluids and salts. In severely dehydrated persons it should be given as Intravenous fluids.

 


Home | Links 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 |
Copyright 2006 Diseases-Conditions.org All Rights Reserved

Disclaimer : All information on diseases-conditions.org is for educational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, please consult your doctor.